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UUencode / UUdecode

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UU-encoding is a way to code a file which may contain any characters into a standard character set that can be reliably sent over diverse networks.


The basic scheme is to break groups of 3 eight bit characters (24 bits) into 4 six bit characters and then add 32 (a space) to each six bit character which maps it into the readily transmittable character. Another way of phrasing this is to say that the encoded 6 bit characters are mapped into the set: `!"#$%&'()*+,-./012356789:;<=>?@ABC...XYZ[\]^_ for transmission over communications lines.

As some transmission mechanisms compress or remove spaces, spaces are changed into back-quote characters (a 96). (A better scheme might be to use a bias of 33 so the space is not created, but this is not done.)

Another newer less popular encoding method, called XX-encoding uses the set: +-01..89ABC...XYZabc...xyz

In my opinion, XX-encoding is superior to UU-encoding because it uses more "normal" characters that are less likely to get corrupted. In fact several of the special characters in the UU set do not get thru an EBCDIC to ASCII translation correctly. Conversely, an advantage of the UU set is that it does not use lower case characters. Now-a-days both upper and lower case are sent with no problems; maybe in the communications dark ages, there was a problem with lower case.

This "UU" encode/decode pair can handle either XX or UU encoding. The encode program defaults to creating a UU encoded file; but can be run with a "-x" option to create an XX encoding.

The decode program defaults to autodetect. However the program can get confused by comment lines preceeding the actual encoded data. The decode mode can be forced to UU or XX with the "-u" or "-x" parameter.

Another option is for the character mapping table to be inserted at the front of the file. The format for this is discussed later. The table parameters are detected and used by this decode program. (A table will override the "-x" or "-u" parameters.) The encode program can be run with a "-t" option which tells it to put the table into the encoded file.

A third encode mapping is the one used by Brad Templeton's ABE program. This is not handled by these programs as the check and control information surrounding the actual encoded data is in a different form.

From a theoritical view, this encoding is breaking down 24 bits modulo 64. Note that 64**3 is = 2**24. The result is 24 bits in for 32 bits out, a 33% size increase. Note that 85**5 > 2**32. Also note that there are 94 transmittable ASCII characters (from 0x21 thru 0x7e). Thus modulo 85 encoding (the atob encoder) transforms 32 bits to 5 ASCII chars or 40 bits for a 25% size increase.

The trade off in the module 85 encoding is that many communications systems do not reliably transmit 85 ASCII characters. The tilda, carat, brackets, and sometimes upper or lower case frequently get corrupted.


A small number of eight bit characters are encoded into a single line and a count is put at the start of the line. (Most lines in an encoded file have 45 encoded characters. When you look at a UU-encoded file note that most lines start with the letter "M". "M" is decimal 77 which, minus the 32 bias, is 45.)

This encode program puts a check character at the end of each line. The check is the sum of all the encoded characters, before adding the mapping, modulo 64.

Note: Horton 9/1/87 UUENCODE has a bug in the line check algorithm; it uses the sum of the original, not the encoded characters. This decode program accepts either form of line check character.

In previous versions (4.13 and lower) the line check characters was generated by default by this encode program and was supressed with the "-L" option. One reason to supress them is if they will be decoded by one of the old Horton decoders. Most decoders either accept this form of check or simply stop looking after the line length is exhausted. My feelings are mixed about the line checksums because errors of this type essentially never occur.

However with modern, error-free communications systems and with the CRC checks on the entire file (see below) I have made the default for uuencoding to have NO line level check characters effective version 4.21. The "-L" option on uuencode turns on generation of line checksums. If you have a really bad communications system and you want to isolate a problem, turn them on.

Uudecode automatically checks for the presense line checksums, so the default for uudecode is to leave line level checks on; if there are some problems the "-L" option for uudecode turns them off. Sometimes there is junk at the end of the line which causes spurious line checksum errors.

I have encountered various other ways that encoders end lines. One encoder put a "M" at both the start and end of the line. Another used a line count character. This decode program checks all of these. I would not be surprised if some encoder out there ends lines with astrological symbols. If you encounter some other wierd form of encoded file, let me know.

Done privately and not for profit (freeware). Suggestions appreciated. The programs are written in Turbo Pascal 5.5 with about 5% TASM for speed. The source is not public domain. I would entertain consulting contracts for porting to other hardware platforms. Also if included in your for profit product, please contact me.

Richard Marks
931 Sulgrave Lane
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010

Copyright Richard E. Marks, Bryn Mawr, PA, 1992

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