Dot Com Disclosures -- FTC Rules on Internet Advertising

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Although the number of companies advertising online—and the number of consumers
shopping online—are soaring, fraud and deception may dampen consumer confidence in the e-marketplace. But cyberspace is not without boundaries, and fraud and deception are unlawful no matter what the medium. The FTC has enforced and will continue enforcing its consumer protection laws online to ensure that products and services are described truthfully in online ads and that consumers get what they pay for. These activities benefit consumers as well as sellers, who expect and deserve a fair marketplace.

Many of the general principles of advertising law apply to Internet ads, but new issues arise almost as fast as technology develops. This booklet describes the information businesses should consider as they develop online ads to ensure that they comply with the law. Briefly,

1.gif (167 bytes) The same consumer protection laws that apply to commercial activities in other media apply online. The FTC Act’s prohibition on "unfair or deceptive acts or practices" encompasses Internet advertising, marketing and sales. In addition, many Commission rules and guides are not limited to any particular medium used to disseminate claims or advertising, and therefore, apply to online activities.
2.gif (169 bytes) Disclosures that are required to prevent an ad from being misleading, to ensure that consumers receive material information about the terms of a transaction or to further public policy goals, must be clear and conspicuous. In evaluating whether disclosures are likely to be clear and conspicuous in online ads, advertisers should consider the placement of the disclosure in an ad and its proximity to the relevant claim. Additional considerations include: the prominence of the disclosure; whether items in other parts of the ad distract attention from the disclosure; whether the ad is so lengthy that the disclosure needs to be repeated; whether disclosures in audio messages are presented in an adequate volume and cadence and visual disclosures appear for a sufficient duration; and, whether the language of the disclosure is understandable to the intended audience.
3.gif (169 bytes)

To make a disclosure clear and conspicuous, advertisers should:

  • Place disclosures near, and when possible, on the same screen as the triggering claim.
  • Use text or visual cues to encourage consumers to scroll down a Web page when it is necessary to view a disclosure.
  • When using hyperlinks to lead to disclosures,
    • make the link obvious;
    • label the hyperlink appropriately to convey the importance, nature and relevance of the information it leads to;
    • use hyperlink styles consistently so that consumers know when a link is available;
    • place the hyperlink near relevant information and make it noticeable;
    • take consumers directly to the disclosure on the click-through page;
    • assess the effectiveness of the hyperlink by monitoring click-through rates and make changes accordingly.
  • Recognize and respond to any technological limitations or unique characteristics of high tech methods of making disclosures, such as frames or pop-ups.
  • Display disclosures prior to purchase, but recognize that placement limited only to the order page may not always work.
  • Creatively incorporate disclosures in banner ads or disclose them clearly and conspicuously on the page the banner ad links to.
  • Prominently display disclosures so they are noticeable to consumers, and evaluate the size, color and graphic treatment of the disclosure in relation to other parts of the Web page.
  • Review the entire ad to ensure that other elements—text, graphics, hyperlinks or sound—do not distract consumers’ attention from the disclosure.
  • Repeat disclosures, as needed, on lengthy Web sites and in connection with repeated claims.
  • Use audio disclosures when making audio claims, and present them in a volume and cadence so that consumers can hear and understand them.
  • Display visual disclosures for a duration sufficient for consumers to notice, read and understand them.
  • Use clear language and syntax so that consumers understand the disclosures.
4.gif (173 bytes) Commission rules and guides that use specific terms—"written," "writing," "printed" or "direct mail"—are adaptable to new technologies.
  • Rules and guides that apply to written ads or printed materials also apply to visual text displayed on the Internet.
  • If a seller uses email to comply with Commission rule or guide notice requirements, the seller should ensure that consumers understand that they will receive such information by email and provide it in a form that consumers can retain.
  • "Direct mail" solicitations include email. If an email invites consumers to call the sender to purchase goods or services, that telephone call and subsequent sale must comply with the Telemarketing Sales Rule requirements.

I. Introduction

Day in and day out, businesses are going online to advertise and sell their products
and services. The Internet combines aspects of print, television, and radio advertising in an interactive environment, and while it presents a new and fast-paced experience for consumers, it also raises interesting—and occasionally complex—questions about the applicability of laws that were developed long before "dot com" became a household phrase.

The Federal Trade Commission has examined how its own consumer protection rules and guides apply to advertising and sales made via the Internet. This staff working paper discusses FTC requirements that disclosures be presented clearly and conspicuously, in the context of Internet advertisements. It also discusses how certain rules and guides apply to online activities, when the rule or guide refers to "written" ads or "direct mail" solicitations or requires notices to be sent to consumers.

The publication of this staff working paper follows a public comment period and a public workshop which was held to discuss the applicability of FTC rules and guides to online activities.1 In evaluating how disclosures can be displayed clearly and conspicuously in online ads, the comments and workshop discussion focused specifically on disclosures required by the rules and guides.2 The same analysis that applies to rule and guide disclosures also applies to disclosures that are necessary to prevent deception under Section 5 of the FTC Act. They, too, must be clear and conspicuous. Therefore, this paper addresses both types of disclosures.3

II. The Applicability of FTC Law to Internet Advertising

advert.gif (6037 bytes)The FTC Act’s prohibition on "unfair or deceptive acts or practices" broadly covers
advertising claims, marketing and promotional activities, and sales practices in general.4 The Act is not limited to any particular medium. Accordingly, the Commission’s role in protecting consumers from unfair or deceptive acts or practices encompasses advertising, marketing, and sales online, as well as the same activities in print, television, telephone and radio. Indeed, since 1994, the Commission has brought over 100 law enforcement actions to stop fraud and deception online and is working to educate businesses about their legal obligations and consumers about their rights.

For certain industries or subject areas, the Commission issues rules and guides. Rules prohibit specific acts or practices that the Commission has found to be unfair or deceptive.5 Guides help businesses in their efforts to comply with the law by providing examples or direction on how to avoid unfair or deceptive acts or practices.6 Many rules and guides address claims about products or services or advertising in general and are not limited to any particular medium used to disseminate those claims or advertising.7 Therefore, the plain language of many rules and guides applies to claims made on the Internet.8 For example, the Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule, which addresses the sale of merchandise that is ordered by mail, telephone, facsimile or computer, applies to those sales regardless of "the method used to solicit the order."9 language.gif (5178 bytes)Solicitations made in print, on the telephone, radio, TV or online naturally fall within the Rule’s scope. In addition, the Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising apply to endorsements, which are defined as "any advertising message . . . [that] consumers are likely to believe reflects the opinions, beliefs, findings, or experience of a party other than the sponsoring advertiser."10 The Guides refer to advertising without limiting the media in which it is disseminated, and therefore, encompass online ads.

III. Clear and Conspicuous Disclosures in Online Advertisements

clear.gif (4275 bytes)When it comes to online ads, the basic principles of advertising law apply:

  1. Advertising must be truthful and not misleading;11

  2. Advertisers must have evidence to back up their claims ("substantiation");12 and

  3. Advertisements cannot be unfair.13

Unique features in Internet ads also may affect how an ad and any required disclosures are evaluated.

A. Background on Disclosures

Advertisers must identify all express and implied claims that the ad conveys to consumers. When identifying claims, advertisers should not focus only on individual phrases or statements, but should consider the ad as a whole, including the text, product name and depictions.14 If an ad makes express or implied claims that are likely to be misleading without certain qualifying information, the information must be disclosed. Advertisers must determine which claims might need qualification and what information should be provided in a disclosure. If qualifying information is necessary to prevent an ad from being misleading, advertisers must present the information clearly and conspicuously.

A disclosure only qualifies or limits a claim, to avoid a misleading impression. It cannot cure a false claim. If a disclosure provides information that contradicts a claim, the disclosure will not be sufficient to prevent the ad from being deceptive. In that situation, the claim itself must be modified.

Many Commission rules and guides spell out the information that must be disclosed in connection with certain claims. In many cases, these disclosures prevent a claim from being misleading or deceptive.15 Other rules and guides require disclosures to ensure that consumers receive material information about the terms of a transaction,16 or to further public policy goals.17 These disclosures also must be clear and conspicuous.

B. The Clear and Conspicuous Requirement

Disclosures that are required to prevent deception—or to provide consumers material information about a transaction—must be presented "clearly and conspicuously."18 Whether a disclosure meets this standard is measured by its performance—that is, how consumers actually perceive and understand the disclosure within the context of the entire ad. The key is the overall net impression of the ad—that is, whether the claims consumers take from the ad are truthful and substantiated.19

In reviewing their online ads, advertisers should adopt the perspective of a reasonable consumer.20 They also should assume that consumers don’t read an entire Web site, just as they don’t read every word on a printed page.21 In addition, it is important for advertisers to draw attention to the disclosure. Making the disclosure available somewhere in the ad so that consumers who are looking for the information might find it doesn’t meet the clear and conspicuous standard.

Even though consumers have control over what and how much information they view on Web sites, they may not be looking for—or expecting to find—disclosures. Advertisers are responsible for ensuring that their messages are truthful and not deceptive. Accordingly, disclosures must be communicated effectively so that consumers are likely to notice and understand them.

C. What are Clear and Conspicuous Disclosures?

There is no set formula for a clear and conspicuous disclosure. In all media, the best way to disclose information depends on what information must be provided and the nature of the advertisement. Some disclosures are quite short, while others are more detailed. Some ads use only text, while others use graphics, video and audio. Advertisers have the flexibility to be creative in designing their ads, so long as necessary disclosures are communicated effectively and the overall message conveyed to consumers is not misleading.

To evaluate whether a particular disclosure is clear and conspicuous, consider:

The following discussion uses these traditional factors to evaluate whether disclosures are likely to be clear and conspicuous in the context of online ads. In the online version of this booklet, the underlined hyperlinks link to mock ads. In the printed booklet, the circles in the margin correspond to mock ads in the appendix. Each mock ad presents a scenario to illustrate one or more particular factors. Advertisers must consider all of the factors, however, and evaluate an actual disclosure in the context of the ad as a whole.

1. Proximity and Placement

A disclosure is more effective if it is placed near the claim it qualifies or other relevant information. Proximity increases the likelihood that consumers will see the disclosure and relate it to the relevant claim or product. For print ads, an advertiser might measure proximity in terms of whether the disclosure is placed adjacent to the claim, or whether it is separated from the claim by text or graphics. The same approach can be used for Internet ads. Web sites, however, are interactive and have a certain depth—with multiple pages linked together and pop-up screens, for example—that may affect how proximity is evaluated.

a.  Evaluating Proximity in the Context of a Web Page

Some disclosures must be made when an ad contains a certain claim (often referred to as a "triggering claim"). On a Web page, the disclosure is more likely to be effective if consumers view the claim and disclosure together on the same screen. Example 1. Even if a disclosure is not tied to a particular word or phrase, it is more likely that consumers will notice it if it is placed next to the information, product, or service to which it relates.

In some circumstances, it may be difficult to ensure that a disclosure appears on the "same screen" as a claim or product information. Some disclosures are long and difficult to place next to the claims they qualify. In addition, computers and other information "appliances" have varying screen sizes that display Web sites differently.22 In these situations, consumers may need to scroll to view a disclosure. If scrolling is necessary, advertisers should ask whether consumers are likely to do it. If consumers don’t scroll, they may miss important qualifying information and be misled.

In these circumstances, advertisers are advised to:

Use text or visual cues to encourage consumers to scroll.
Text prompts can indicate that more information is available. An explicit instruction like "see below for important information on diamond weights" will alert consumers to scroll and look for the information. The text prompt should be tied to the disclosure that it refers to. General or vague statements, such as "see below for details," provide no indication about the subject matter or importance of the information that consumers will find and are not adequate cues.

The visual design of the page also could help alert consumers to the availability of more information. For example, text that clearly continues below the screen, whether spread over an entire page or in a column, would indicate that the reader needs to scroll for additional information. Example 2. Advertisers should consider how the Web page is displayed by the default Web browser setting for which the ad is designed, as well as for different display options.

A scroll bar on the side of a computer screen is not a sufficiently effective visual cue. Although the scroll bar may indicate to some consumers that they have not reached the end of a page, many consumers may not look at the scroll bar. In fact, some consumers access the Internet with devices that don’t display a scroll bar.

Avoid Web page formats that discourage scrolling.
The design of some pages might indicate that there is no more information on the page and no need to continue scrolling. If the text ends before the bottom of the screen or readers see several inches of blank space, chances are they will stop scrolling and miss the disclosure. Example 3. In addition, if there is a lot of unrelated information—either words or graphics—separating a claim and a disclosure, even a consumer who is prompted to scroll might miss the disclosure or not relate it to a distant claim they’ve already read.

b.  Hyperlinking to a Disclosure

With hyperlinks, additional information, including disclosures, might be placed on a Web page entirely separate from the relevant claim. Disclosures that are an integral part of a claim or inseparable from it, however, should be placed on the same page and immediately next to the claim. In these situations, the claim and the disclosure should be read at the same time, without referring the consumer somewhere else to obtain the disclosure. This is particularly true for cost information or certain health and safety disclosures. For example, if the total cost of a product is advertised on one page, but there are significant additional fees that the consumer would not expect to be charged, the existence of those additional fees should be disclosed on the same page and immediately adjacent to the total cost claim.23  Example 4. In other situations, it may not even be necessary to use a hyperlink to convey disclosures. Often, disclosures consist of a word or phrase that may be easily incorporated into the text, along with the claim. Example 5. This placement increases the likelihood that consumers will see the disclosure and relate it to the relevant claim.

Under some conditions, however, a disclosure accessible by a hyperlink may be sufficiently proximate to the relevant claim. Hyperlinked disclosures may be particularly useful if the disclosure is lengthy or if it needs to be repeated (because of multiple triggers, for example). The key considerations for effective hyperlinks are:

Choosing the right label for the hyperlink. A hyperlink that leads to a disclosure should be labeled clearly and conspicuously. The hyperlink’s label—the text or graphic assigned to it—affects whether consumers actually click on it and see and read the disclosure.

Using hyperlink styles consistently allows consumers to know when a link is available. Although the text or graphics used to signal a hyperlink may differ among Web sites, treating hyperlinks inconsistently within a single site can increase the chances that consumers will not notice—or click on—a disclosure hyperlink. For example, if hyperlinks usually are underlined in a site, chances are consumers wouldn’t recognize italicized text as being a link, and could miss the disclosure.

Placing the link near relevant information and making it noticeable. The hyperlink should be proximate to the claim that triggers the disclosure so that consumers can notice it easily and relate it to the claim. Typically, this means that the hyperlink is adjacent to the triggering term or other relevant information. Example 13. Consumers may miss disclosure hyperlinks that are separated from the relevant claim by text, graphics, blank space, or intervening hyperlinks. Example 14. Format, color or other graphics treatment also can help to ensure that consumers notice the link. (See below for more information on prominence.)

Getting to the disclosure on the click-through page should be easy. The click-through page—that is, the page the hyperlink leads to—must contain the complete disclosure. The disclosure must be displayed prominently. Distracting visual factors, extraneous information, and many "click-away" opportunities to link elsewhere before viewing the disclosure can obscure an otherwise adequate disclaimer. Example 15.

c.  Using High Tech Methods For Proximity and Placement

Disclosures may be displayed on Web sites in many ways. For example, a disclosure may be placed in a frame that remains constant even as the consumer scrolls down the page or navigates through another part of the site. A disclosure also might be displayed in a window that pops-up or on interstitial pages that appear while another Web page is loading. New techniques for displaying information are being unveiled all the time. But there are special considerations for evaluating whether a technique is appropriate for providing required disclosures.

d.  Displaying Disclosures Prior to Purchase

Disclosures must be effectively communicated to consumers before they make a purchase or incur a financial obligation. Disclosures are more likely to be effective if they are provided in the context of the ad, when the consumer is considering the purchase. Where advertising and selling are combined on a Web site, disclosures should be provided before the consumer makes the decision to buy, say, before clicking on an "order now" button or a link that says "add to shopping cart."disclosures.gif (6860 bytes)

e.  Evaluating Proximity With Banner Ads

Most banner ads displayed today are teasers. Because of their small size, they generally do not provide complete information about a product or service. Instead, consumers must click through to the Web site to get more information and learn the terms of an offer. In some instances, a banner may contain a claim that requires qualification.

2. Prominence

It’s the advertiser’s responsibility to draw attention to the required disclosures.

3. Distracting Factors in Ads

The clear and conspicuous analysis does not focus only on the disclosure itself. It also is important to consider the entire ad. Elements like graphics, sound, text or even hyperlinks that lead to other pages or sites, may result in consumers not noticing, reading or listening to the disclosure.

4. Repetition

It may be necessary to disclose important information more than once in an advertisement to convey a non-deceptive message. Repeating a disclosure makes it more likely that a consumer will notice and understand it. Still, the disclosure need not be repeated so often that consumers would ignore it and that it would clutter the ad.

5. Multimedia Messages

Internet ads may contain audio messages, video clips and other animated segments with claims that require qualification. As with radio and television ads, the disclosure should accompany the claim. In evaluating whether disclosures in these multimedia portions of online ads are clear and conspicuous, advertisers should evaluate all of the factors discussed in this paper and these special considerations: 

6. Understandable Language

To ensure that disclosures are effective, consumers must be able to understand them. Advertisers should use clear language and syntax and avoid legalese or technical jargon. Disclosures should be as simple and straightforward as possible. Incorporating extraneous material into the disclosure also may diminish the message that must be conveyed to consumers.

IV. Specific Issues in Applying Certain Rules and Guides to Internet Activities

A. It’s Not Just Paper Anymore

Some Commission rules and guides use certain terms—such as "written," "writing" and "printed"—that connote words or information on paper. With the increasing use of computers and other electronic devices, that meaning is changing. In addition, thanks to email, businesses are no longer limited to using traditional communications vehicles like mail or the telephone to comply with rule or guide requirements to notify consumers.

1. Rules and Guides that Use the Terms "Written," "Writing" or "Printed"

Many rules and guides use the terms "written," "writing" and "printed," but in different ways. Some apply to written ads or transactions, using the term written to connote visual text. Others require information to be disclosed in writing, signaling the importance of text and the ability to retain and refer to the information more than once. Because each term must be analyzed within the context of the rule and guide itself, the Commission will continue to examine the exact nature of how these rules and guides apply to the paperless world of e-commerce and online advertising on a case-by-case basis and through periodic rule and guide reviews.28

For the most part, however, Commission rules and guides that use the words "written," "writing" and "printed" will apply online. In many cases, an Internet ad that uses visual text is the equivalent of a "written" ad. Consumers expect to receive the same information and protections whether they’re looking at a paper catalog or an online one. For example:

2. Using New Technologies to Comply with Rules & Guides

As more activities and transactions take place online, businesses are using email to communicate with their customers. In some cases, email may be used to comply with a rule or guide requirement to provide or send required notices or documents to consumers. A key consideration for choosing this method of delivery is whether consumers understand or expect that they will receive important information by email. email.gif (3533 bytes)In addition, information should be provided in a form that consumers can retain, either by saving or printing. Here are examples of how these considerations apply to particular rules:

B. Direct Mail Solicitations Online

"Direct mail" solicitations generally refer to promotional materials that consumers receive through traditional mail. With technological advances, these kinds of solicitations have moved online.

Although the Telemarketing Sales Rule applies largely to telemarketing calls from business-to-consumer, it also applies to telephone calls the consumer places in response to a "direct mail" advertisement.34 As with direct mail sent by traditional means, email can convey the false impression that the recipient has been "specially selected" for an offer not available to the general public. That impression may be exploited in a telemarketing call, particularly if the direct mail piece omits important information about the products or services offered. Therefore, if an email invites consumers to telephone the sender to purchase goods or services, the phone call is subject to the Telemarketing Sales Rule35—as is the subsequent sale.

Not all online advertisements are considered "direct mail" solicitations. Consumers who view most Web sites, newsgroups, or electronic bulletin board postings are likely to understand that the goods or services are being offered on the same terms and conditions to all consumers—and that they haven’t been "specially selected" for the offer. Like television and newspaper advertisements, Web sites generally, newsgroups, and electronic bulletin board postings are different forms of advertising than "direct mail."36 Telephone calls placed in response to these types of ads would generally be exempt from the Telemarketing Sales Rule.37

V. Conclusion

confidence.gif (5786 bytes)Although the number of companies advertising online—and the number of consumers
shopping online—are soaring, fraud and deception may dampen consumer confidence in the e-marketplace. To ensure that products and services are described truthfully in online ads and that consumers get what they pay for, the FTC has, and will continue to, enforce its consumer protection laws. Many of the general principles of advertising law apply to online ads, but new issues arise almost as fast as technology develops. The FTC will continue to evaluate online advertising, using traditional criteria, while recognizing the uniqueness of the new medium. Businesses as well should consider these criteria when developing online ads and ensuring they comply with the law.


1  The Commission initially requested written comment on a proposal that discussed how it would apply its rules and guides to online activities. 63 Fed. Reg. 24998 (May 6, 1998). After reviewing the comments, the Commission held a public workshop on May 14, 1999, to explore the issues further. See 64 Fed. Reg. 14156 (Mar. 24, 1999) (announcing the workshop). Twenty-five groups, including businesses, trade associations and consumer organizations, participated in the workshop discussion. The focus of the workshop was an evaluation of how disclosures required by FTC rules and guides can be displayed clearly and conspicuously in Internet advertisements. A shorter session examined how terms such as "written," "writing" and "printed" are used in FTC rules and guides and should be interpreted in light of the use of electronic media. Additional written comments were submitted after the workshop. The public comments and the workshop transcript are available at or from the FTC’s Consumer Response Center, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Room 130, Washington, DC 20580.

2  With the rules and guides, the content of the disclosure generally is prescribed. Thus, it was unnecessary to examine broader issues that might arise in examining advertising in general—for example, whether a disclosure is even necessary or what it should say.

3  This working paper, however, does not address disclosures required by regulations issued by the Federal Reserve Board: Regulation B, 12 C.F.R. Part 202; Regulation E, 12 C.F.R. Part 205; Regulation M, 12 C.F.R. Part 213; Regulation Z, 12 C.F.R. Part 226. This paper also does not address which country’s laws govern a particular transaction or sale. The FTC and other countries and organizations have been evaluating these issues and will continue to work cooperatively in this area. See for more information about international issues.

4  The Commission’s authority covers virtually every sector of the economy, except for certain excluded industries, such as the business of insurance and banks.

5  The Commission issues rules pursuant to Section 5 of the FTC Act when it has reason to believe that certain unfair or deceptive acts or practices are prevalent in an industry. 15 U.S.C. § 57a(a)(1)(B). The Commission may seek civil penalties from any person or company that violates a rule "with actual knowledge or knowledge fairly implied on the basis of objective circumstances that such act is unfair or deceptive and is prohibited by such rule." 15 U.S.C. § 45(m)(1)(A). The Commission also may seek redress for consumers. 15 U.S.C. § 57b(a)(1). In addition, the Commission promulgates rules pursuant to specific statutes, which are designed to further particular policy goals. The remedies available to enforce these rules vary.

6  Guides are "administrative interpretations of the laws administered by the Commission." 16 C.F.R. § 1.5. Although the guides do not have the force and effect of law, the Commission may bring an enforcement action if a person or company fails to comply with a guide and engages in an unfair or deceptive practice in violation of the FTC Act.

7  The following rules and guides are included in this category: Guides for the Nursery Industry (16 C.F.R. Part 18); Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry (16 C.F.R. Part 20); Guides for the Jewelry, Precious Metals, and Pewter Industries (16 C.F.R. Part 23); Guides for Select Leather and Imitation Leather Products (16 C.F.R. Part 24); Tire Advertising and Labeling Guides (16 C.F.R. Part 228); Guides Against Deceptive Pricing (16 C.F.R. Part 233); (16 C.F.R. Part 238); Guides for the Advertising of Warranties and Guarantees (16 C.F.R. Part 239); Guides for the Household Furniture Industry (16 C.F.R. Part 250); Guide Concerning Use of the Word "Free" and Similar Representations (16 C.F.R. Part 251); Guides for Private Vocational and Distance Education Schools (16 C.F.R. Part 254); Guides Concerning Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising (16 C.F.R. Part 255); Guides Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles (16 C.F.R. Part 259); Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims (16 C.F.R. Part 260); Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (16 C.F.R. Part 300); Rules and Regulations Under Fur Products Labeling Act (16 C.F.R. Part 301); Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (16 C.F.R. Part 303); Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act ("Appliance Labeling Rule") (16 C.F.R. Part 305); Rule Concerning Automotive Fuel Ratings, Certification and Posting (16 C.F.R. Part 306); Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles (16 C.F.R. Part 309); Telemarketing Sales Rule (16 C.F.R. Part 310); Deceptive Advertising as to Sizes of Viewable Pictures Shown by Television Receiving Sets (16 C.F.R. Part 410); Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices (16 C.F.R. Part 424); Use of Prenotification Negative Option Plans (16 C.F.R. Part 425); Power Output Claims for Amplifiers Utilized in Home Entertainment Products (16 C.F.R. Part 432); Preservation of Consumers’ Claims and Defenses (16 C.F.R. Part 433); Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule (16 C.F.R. Part 435); Credit Practices Rule (16 C.F.R. Part 444); Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (16 C.F.R. Part 455); Labeling and Advertising of Home Insulation (16 C.F.R. Part 460); Interpretations of Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act (16 C.F.R. Part 700); Disclosure of Written Consumer Product Warranty Terms and Conditions (16 C.F.R. Part 701); Pre-Sale Availability of Written Warranty Terms (16 C.F.R. Part 702); Informal Dispute Settlement Procedures (16 C.F.R. Part 703).

8  A rule or guide applies to online activities if its scope is not limited by how claims are communicated to consumers, how advertising is disseminated, or where commercial activities occur. As needed, the Commission will amend or clarify the scope of any particular rule or guide in more detail during its regularly scheduled review. The Commission has a program in place to periodically review its rules and guides to evaluate their continued need and to make any necessary changes.

9  16 C.F.R. § 435.2(a).

10  16 C.F.R. § 255(b).

11  As explained in the FTC’s Deception Policy Statement, an ad is deceptive if it contains a statement—or omits information—that is likely to mislead consumers acting reasonably under the circumstances and is "material" or important to a consumer’s decision to buy or use the product. See FTC Policy Statement on Deception, appended to Cliffdale Associates, Inc., 103 F.T.C. at 174 ("Deception Policy Statement"). A statement also may be deceptive if the advertiser does not have a reasonable basis to support the claim. Advertising Substantiation Statement. See FTC Policy Statement on Advertising Substantiation, appended to Thompson Medical Co., 104 F.T.C. 648, 839 (1984), aff’d, 791 F.2d 189 (D.C. Cir. 1986), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 1086 (1987).

12  Before disseminating an ad, advertisers must have reasonable support for all express and implied objective claims that the ad conveys to consumers. When an ad lends itself to more than one reasonable interpretation, there must be substantiation for each interpretation. The type of evidence needed to substantiate a claim may depend on the product, the claims, and what experts believe is necessary. If an ad specifies a certain level of support for a claim—"tests show x"—the advertiser must have at least that level of support.

13  According to the FTC Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45(n) and the FTC’s Unfairness Policy Statement, an advertisement or business practice is unfair if it causes or is likely to cause substantial consumer injury that consumers could not reasonably avoid and that is not outweighed by the benefit to consumers or competition. See FTC Policy Statement on Unfairness, appended to International Harvester Co., 104 F.T.C. 949, 1070 (1984).

14  Copy tests or other evidence of how consumers actually interpret an ad can be valuable. In many cases, however, the implications of the ad are clear enough to determine the existence of the claim by examining the ad alone, without extrinsic evidence.

15  For example, if an endorsement is not representative of the performance that consumers can generally expect to achieve with a product, advertisers must disclose this fact so that consumers are not misled. Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising, 16 C.F.R. § 255.2.

16  For example, any solicitation for the purchase of consumer products with a warranty must disclose the text of the warranty offer or how consumers can obtain it for free. Pre-Sale Availability of Written Warranty Terms, 16 C.F.R. § 702.3.

17  For example, the required energy efficiency disclosures in the Appliance Labeling Rule, 16 C.F.R. § 305.4, further the public policy goal of promoting energy conservation.

18  Some rules and guides, as well as some FTC cases, use the phrase "clearly and prominently" instead of "clearly and conspicuously." These two phrases are synonymous.

19  Deception Policy Statement at 175-76.

20  Deception Policy Statement at 178.

21  Deception Policy Statement at 180-81.

22  Web pages can vary in length, and one Web page may be the equivalent of many printed pages.

23  In some cases, the details about the additional fees might be too complex to describe adjacent to the price claim and may be provided by using a hyperlink. But, a clear statement about the existence and nature of the extra fees should appear adjacent to the price. Of course, all cost information should be presented to consumers at the time of purchase. Consumers should understand the exact amount they will be charged and should not have to learn this information by clicking on hyperlinks.

24  Asterisks and other symbols also are used in different ways on Web pages, which may confuse consumers as to where the related disclosure may be found. Some online asterisks and symbols are hyperlinks that click-through to a separate page and others are static, referring to a disclosure at the bottom of the page.

25  This approach is consistent with Commission policy for disclosures in other media. For example, the Commission has required fuller disclosures in print ads and a shorter disclosure in a short television ad with a referral to another location for more complete information. See, e.g., Nutri/System, Inc., 116 F.T.C. 1408 (1993) (consent order requiring a shorter disclosure for 15 second television ads).

26  Web sites may display differently depending on the browser, computer screen, or other information appliance used. Advertisers may be working with a default view, but also evaluating different display options so that the site will be attractive and accessible to most consumers. Considering different display options also may be necessary to ensure that qualifying information is displayed clearly and conspicuously. Evaluating the prominence of the disclosure in relation to the rest of the ad helps ensure that consumers are able to view the disclosure.

27  See, e.g., Kent & Spiegel Direct, Inc., 124 F.T.C. 300 (1997); Synchronal Corp., 116 F.T.C. 1189 (1993) (consent orders requiring disclosures to be repeated during television infomercials).

28  For example, the Commission specifically amended the Textile Rules’ requirement to disclose textile origin in "print" catalogs to clarify that these disclosures must be made in online catalogs as well. See 63 Fed. Reg. 7507 (Feb. 13, 1998) or for a discussion of the amendments to the Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 16 C.F.R. Part 303.

29  16 C.F.R. § 305.1(d).

30  16 C.F.R. §§ 305.2(m), 305.14.

31  Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule, 16 C.F.R. § 435.1(b).

32  Rule Concerning Use of Prenotification Negative Option Plans, 16 C.F.R. § 425(a)(2).

33  Disclosure of Written Consumer Product Warranty Terms and Conditions, 16 C.F.R. § 701.3, and Pre-Sale Availability of Written Warranty Terms, 16 C.F.R. § 702.3. According to the Rule Regarding Pre-Sale Availability of Written Warranty Terms, an alternative to making the warranty terms available prior to purchase is for sellers to provide information about how consumers may obtain the written warranty for free by mail. 16 C.F.R. § 702.3(c)(2).

34  16 C.F.R. § 310.6. The Telemarketing Sales Rule prohibits deceptive and abusive telemarketing practices. Among other things, it requires that certain information be disclosed in telemarketing calls. The scope of the Rule does not extend to transactions that take place entirely online. The sales transaction must involve a traditional voice telephone call. See 60 Fed. Reg. 30,406, 30,411 (June 8, 1995). In addition, in most situations, the Rule does not apply if a consumer calls a business in response to an advertisement. However, if a consumer calls a business in response to a "direct mail" advertisement, that call is subject to the Rule.

35  The telephone call may be exempt from the Rule’s coverage if the direct mail piece contains certain disclosures, such as the total cost to purchase the goods or services.

36  Whether certain types of online ads, such as targeted banner ads or personalized solicitations on Web sites, constitute direct mail should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

37  A small number of telemarketing transactions relating to specific types of goods or services are covered by the Telemarketing Sales Rule, regardless of the advertising method or manner in which the telemarketing calls were initiated. For example, credit repair services and advance fee loan services sold through telemarketing are covered by the Telemarketing Sales Rule, regardless of whether the consumer called in response to a direct mail piece, television advertisement, or Web site. 16 C.F.R. § 310.6(e) and (f).

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